Apert syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that causes a fetus' facial and skull bones to fuse together too early in its development. Apert syndrome causes facial and skull abnormalities, which can lead to visual impairments and dental problems. Apert syndrome can also cause abnormalities in the fingers and toes. This article will provide an overview of Apert syndrome, including the symptoms, treatments, and outlook for this condition. Apert syndrome is a condition where the bones of the skull fuse together too early, which affects the shape of the head and face. People born with Apert syndrome may experience problems with their vision and teeth because of the abnormal shape of the facial and skull bones. In many cases, three or more fingers or toes also fuse together, which is called syndactyly. Apert syndrome is a genetic disorder. It usually appears with no family history of the syndrome, but it can also be inherited from a parent. Characteristic symptoms of Apert syndrome … [Read more...] about What is Apert syndrome?
Pediatrics / Children's Health
Pectus carinatum is a rare chest wall deformity that causes the breastbone to push outward instead of being flush against the chest. It is also known as pigeon chest or keel chest. When the chest wall develops, the cartilage that connects the ribs usually grows flat along the chest. In cases of pectus carinatum, this cartilage grows abnormally, causing unequal growth in the areas where the ribs connect to the sternum. This causes the outward appearance of the chest wall. Most often, pectus carinatum develops during childhood and gets more pronounced as children go through puberty. In some cases, it may not be noticed until a child goes through their adolescent growth spurt. In this article, we take a look at the symptoms associated with pectus carinatum, along with the possible causes and risk factors. We also examine the treatment options and the outlook for this condition. Often, the pushing outward of the breastbone is the only symptom that a person experiences. Some people may … [Read more...] about What is pectus carinatum and can it be treated?
Botox is an injectable drug made from highly-purified botulinum toxin type A, a neurotoxin that temporarily paralyzes muscles and comes from the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Clostridium is found naturally in the environment and the gastrointestinal tract of animals. Usually, the bacterium only produces toxins when it overgrows and causes infection. The American Society of Plastic Surgeons estimate that 6.6 million women underwent Botox injections in 2016, making it the most popular form of minimally invasive cosmetic surgery performed in the United States. There are medical conditions that may benefit from Botox therapy. These include: neuromuscular conditions that impact muscle control, such as cerebral palsy severe migraine headaches excessive sweating incontinence or urine leakage gastrointestinal tract conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome spasm of the eyelids spasms of the neck and shoulder muscles conditions that cause intense muscle stiffness According to the … [Read more...] about Is it safe to get Botox while breast-feeding?
Kernicterus is brain damage caused by severe, untreated jaundice or high blood levels of a substance called bilirubin. The condition is typically associated with severe, untreated cases of jaundice in newborns. Globally, 60 to 80 percent of newborns experience jaundice. In industrialized countries, only 0.4 to 2.7 of every 100, 000 children develop kernicterus or a condition called acute bilirubin encephalopathy. This is where bilirubin levels are so high they spread to the brain and damage the central nervous system tissues. Currently, kernicterus refers specifically to severe damage to the nervous system caused by jaundice. However, all types of damage related to severe jaundice are also considered to be forms or stages of kernicterus. In this article, we examine the symptoms of kernicterus, along with its causes and risk factors. We also take a look at how the condition is diagnosed, and what can be done to treat it. Kernicterus develops from severe, untreated jaundice. Common … [Read more...] about What is kernicterus and what are the symptoms?
Growth during puberty happens over an extended period, so it can be difficult to know when it has finished. We explain what to expect and how to know when boys are likely to stop growing. Every individual grows at different rates, and puberty begins and ends at different times for everybody. Puberty can last anywhere from 2 to 5 years, so it is not always easy to predict when it will end. A boy's body goes through many changes during puberty. These changes can be embarrassing or confusing, but the process happens to everyone and knowing what to expect can help. Puberty is the process of growth and change that happens in the body as boys become adults. Puberty is different for everyone and can start at any age between 8 and 14. The average age for boys to show the first signs of puberty is around 12 years old, about 1 year after girls begin puberty. The fastest rate of growth is usually 1 to 2 years after puberty has started. Developing physically into an adult takes 2 to 5 years. Most … [Read more...] about What age do boys stop growing?
Girls tend to have their final growth spurt between the ages of 10 and 14. Most will have reached their adult height by the time they are 15 years old. This final growth spurt describes the period of a girl's life when she enters the phase of sexual and physical development, known as puberty. Everyone starts puberty at a different time, and genetics largely determines growth patterns. This means "normal" growth rates in humans occur within a range. Girls tend to experience a growth spurt that takes them to their adult height in their teens, as they go through puberty. Puberty is the transition from childhood to adulthood; it describes a series of changes people go through as their bodies start to increase the production of certain hormones. In girls, puberty tends to start between the ages of 10 and 14. The average age for girls to start puberty is about 11, but it is different for everyone. For some puberty can start earlier or later, and this is completely normal. It tends to last … [Read more...] about At what age do girls stop growing?
Breast cancer is extraordinarily rare in teenagers, so much so that most organizations do not keep statistics for the disease in this age group. Nevertheless, teens may worry that changes in their breasts during puberty are due to breast cancer. To alleviate these concerns, they should monitor their breasts for changes and talk to their doctor if they want reassurance. They should also know that breast changes are nothing to fear and are unlikely to mean breast cancer. The changes that puberty brings can be scary for any young person. Young women develop breasts for the first time and may be unaccustomed to their look and feel. Some may worry about breast cancer. Early breast development often begins as a lump under the nipple, which may compound worries a young teen may have about breast cancer. These breast buds may also be sensitive, triggering fears that something is wrong. Parents and doctors should reassure teenagers about normal breast growth, since developing breasts will be a … [Read more...] about What you should know about breast cancer in teens
Oppositional defiant disorder refers to the persistent display of irrationally rebellious behavior and anger at authority figures over an extended period. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) typically occurs in children, but it can also be present in early adolescence. Children can often be disobedient and argumentative, but consistent patterns of these behaviors could indicate an underlying disorder. This article will discuss what ODD is, how to recognize it, and methods of treating the disorder. Children and teenagers can display aggressive behavior as a result of many environmental and developmental factors. Research into how the brain develops throughout childhood and adolescence suggests such behavior may not necessarily be the product of any identified structural disorder. In fact, a greater understanding of how social factors affect a person's behavior means that some disobedient or argumentative behaviors is now perceived as normal or expected — not a conduct … [Read more...] about What you should know about oppositional defiant disorder
Vitamin K deficiency in adults is rare but does occur in infants. The main symptom of a vitamin K deficiency is excessive bleeding caused by an inability to form blood clots. In this article, we look at the function of vitamin K in the body, as well as the symptoms and treatments for a vitamin K deficiency. Vitamin K comes in two forms. The first type is known as vitamin K-1 or phylloquinone and can be found in plants, such as spinach and kale. The second is known as vitamin K-2 or menaquinone and is found in the body and created naturally in the intestinal tract. Both vitamin K-1 and vitamin K-2 produce proteins that help the blood to clot. Blood clotting or coagulation prevents excessive bleeding internally and externally. While vitamin K deficiency is rare, it means a person's body cannot produce enough of these proteins, increasing the risk of excessive bleeding. Most adults obtain an adequate supply of vitamin K through the foods they eat and through what their body naturally … [Read more...] about Vitamin K deficiency: What you need to know
Treacher Collins syndrome is a rare medical condition caused by a genetic mutation. It affects the development of bones and other tissues of the face and results in abnormalities in the head, face, and ears. Other names for this syndrome are mandibulofacial dysostosis, Treacher Collins-Franceschetti syndrome, Franceschetti-Zwahlen-Klein syndrome, and zygoauromandibular dysplasia. Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) affects approximately 1 in 50,000 live births. In this article, we examine the symptoms, causes, and treatments available for TCS. We also take a look at living with TCS and what the outlook is for people with the condition. The signs and symptoms of TCS vary and range from almost unnoticeable to severe. While some individuals may experience very mild symptoms, others have extremely severe symptoms that may have serious consequences, such as life-threatening airway problems. Signs and symptoms of TCS include some parts of the body developing in an abnormally or incompletely: … [Read more...] about What is Treacher Collins syndrome?