Apert syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that causes a fetus' facial and skull bones to fuse together too early in its development. Apert syndrome causes facial and skull abnormalities, which can lead to visual impairments and dental problems. Apert syndrome can also cause abnormalities in the fingers and toes. This article will provide an overview of Apert syndrome, including the symptoms, treatments, and outlook for this condition. Apert syndrome is a condition where the bones of the skull fuse together too early, which affects the shape of the head and face. People born with Apert syndrome may experience problems with their vision and teeth because of the abnormal shape of the facial and skull bones. In many cases, three or more fingers or toes also fuse together, which is called syndactyly. Apert syndrome is a genetic disorder. It usually appears with no family history of the syndrome, but it can also be inherited from a parent. Characteristic symptoms of Apert syndrome … [Read more...] about What is Apert syndrome?
Bones / Orthopedics
Arachnoiditis is a neurological condition that causes pain in the back, perineum (the space between the genitals and the rectum), legs, arms, and feet. Arachnoiditis can also affect a person's vision, sight, and mobility. Arachnoiditis develops when the tissues that protect the brain, the nerves, and the spinal cord are damaged, usually by a traumatic injury. In this article, we look at the causes and types of arachnoiditis, as well as how to manage the pain and other symptoms. Arachnoiditis occurs when the arachnoid is damaged. The arachnoid is part of a group of membranes that cushion the brain and spinal cord nerves. When this cushioning is damaged, nerves may not function correctly. The nerves in the spinal cord are surrounded by several thin tissues, called meninges, which provide cushioning and protection. The arachnoid mater is the middle tissue of the meninges. Damage to the arachnoid mater can cause swelling and inflammation. This swelling can cause nerves in the spine to … [Read more...] about Arachnoiditis: Symptoms, diagnosis, and outlook
Forearms are integral to hand and arm movement, so pain in this region can be highly disruptive to daily life. Forearm pain can result from a number of different causes, each requiring a different treatment approach. The forearms are composed of the radius and ulna bones, which span the length of the forearm to intersect at the wrist joint. The location means that the forearm is intrinsically involved in a range of everyday arm or hand movements. As a result of this, injury or discomfort in the forearm can have a wide-ranging impact on mobility and interfere with daily functioning. For example, forearm pain can make it difficult to type on a keyboard or grip an item with the hand. The forearm contains several superficial, immediate, and deep muscles. Like most body parts, its structures are connected by tendons and ligaments. Forearm pain can occur for a variety of reasons including: Injury: An acute trauma, such as a fall, can cause a fracture in one of the forearm bones or damage … [Read more...] about What are the causes of forearm pain?
Tarsal tunnel syndrome occurs when the posterior tibial nerve, which runs along the inside of the ankle and foot, becomes compressed and damaged, causing inflammation. The condition, also known as TTS, is usually caused by continual overuse of the foot and ankle, such as occurs with strenuous or prolonged walking, running, standing, or exercising. But TTS can also occur suddenly after traumatic injury, or spontaneously, for no clear reason. A doctor should always assess and treat symptoms of TTS early. The first line of treatment for TTS is RICE, which stands for rest, ice, compression, and elevation. Over-the-counter non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications, or NSAIDs, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen, can also help make symptoms more manageable. For more severe or chronic cases, more aggressive treatment options exist, such as corrective devices, therapies, and in some cases, surgery. Common ways to manage and treat TTS include: Rest: The easiest and most immediate way to … [Read more...] about What to know about tarsal tunnel syndrome
Hip flexor strain can occur when the hip flexor muscles are pulled, strained, torn or injured. A range of activities may cause the condition with the chief symptom being sharp pain. Damage to the hip area can vary from minor injuries that require little treatment, to more severe injuries that result in the muscles ceasing to connect with the bone. The most serious hip flexor injuries are third-degree sprains where the bone breaks alongside the muscle sprain. The hip flexors can be found connecting the top of the femur, which is the largest bone in the body, to the lower back, hips, and groin. There are various hip flexor muscles that all work to enable a person to be mobile. They include: the iliacus and psoas major muscles that are also referred to as iliopsoas the rectus femoris, which is part of a person's quadriceps Overuse or overstretching of these muscles and tendons can result in injury and accompanying pain and reduced mobility. Many people who experience hip flexor strain … [Read more...] about All you need to know about hip flexor strain
Iliopsoas bursitis can cause pain and limited range of motion in the hip joint. The condition often develops from overuse in athletes or other people who exercise regularly. Rest and ice often help people who have mild cases of iliopsoas bursitis. People who are experiencing more severe symptoms may require physical therapy or other treatments. Iliopsoas bursitis is an inflammatory response in the bursa located under the iliopsoas muscle. The iliopsoas muscle is a group of two muscles located toward the front of the inner hip. A bursa is a liquid filled sack that sits between muscles, ligaments, and joints. When functioning normally, a bursa provides cushioning and reduces irritation from rubbing and friction. A damaged bursa causes inflammation that may reduce a person's range of motion, making it difficult for them to move. Athletes and people who exercise regularly tend to develop this condition. It can also develop in people with chronic conditions, such as arthritis, or in people … [Read more...] about What to know about iliopsoas bursitis
Supination and pronation are parts of a stride. Supination occurs when weight is placed on the outside of the foot while walking or running. When the opposite happens, and a person shifts their weight from the heel to the forefoot, it is termed pronation. Excessive supination (underpronation) and excessive pronation (overpronation) can cause problems with the body's alignment and lead to pain in the feet, knees, hips, and back. Read on to discover treatments and preventive techniques for people who supinate excessively. People who pronate excessively roll their foot inward, causing the outer part of the heel to make contact with the ground and the feet to flatten too much. Those who supinate do not roll their foot inward enough. This puts a strain on the ankle and can cause the ankle to roll outward, which leads to injury. Excessive supination is less common than excessive pronation. The structural problems of the feet causing supination are usually inherited. However, external factors … [Read more...] about What to know about supination of the foot
Tendinosis is a chronic tendon injury. It is a common condition but is often misdiagnosed as tendinitis. In this article, learn about the symptoms, causes, and treatments for tendinosis, as well as what makes it different from tendinitis. Tendons are the tough, fibrous cords that attach muscles to bones. Healthy tendons are made of straight, parallel fibers of collagen. Tendinosis occurs when tendons degenerate, meaning that they begin to break down. Tendons may have small tears or disorganized collagen fibers instead of straight collagen fibers. This condition is most common in the elbow, shoulder, knee, hip, and Achilles heel tendons. Tendinosis may be linked to other underlying conditions, such as tennis elbow and swimmer's shoulder. Tendinosis refers to hardening, thickening, and scarring of the tendons. This causes pain and a loss of flexibility in the joint. Common symptoms of tendinosis are: localized burning pain and swelling around the tendon pain that gets worse during and … [Read more...] about What is tendinosis?
Too much phosphate in the blood is known as hyperphosphatemia. The most common cause is kidney disease, but other conditions can lead to phosphate levels being out of balance. Phosphate is a chemical found in the body. It contains a mineral called phosphorus that occurs naturally in many foods. Phosphorus supports bones and teeth to develop and helps turn food into energy for the body to use. The kidneys naturally control levels of phosphates. However, if the kidneys are not working efficiently, they may not be able to remove enough phosphate, leading to high levels in the body. Treatment for hyperphosphatemia will depend on the underlying condition. For people with kidney disease, a combination of diet and medication are used to keep phosphate levels under control. Hyperphosphatemia does not usually have apparent symptoms. It is more likely that the symptoms of an underlying disease that can cause high phosphate levels, such as uncontrolled diabetes, are spotted first. If levels of … [Read more...] about What is hyperphosphatemia?
A knee replacement infection may develop after a person has had an operation to replace their knee joint. What are the symptoms of a knee replacement infection and who is at most risk of getting one? Knee replacement surgery, also known as knee arthroplasty, is one of the most common types of elective surgery. It is estimated that by 2030 as many as 3.48 million knee replacements will take place in the United States. Knee replacement surgery may be necessary if a person has ongoing severe knee pain or swelling that affects their ability to carry out daily activities. Most people are free from pain and regain their mobility after surgery. However, some people who have knee replacement surgery may develop an infection. This article explores the signs, causes, risk factors, and treatments for a knee replacement infection. It also considers how to prevent knee replacement infections from happening. A knee replacement infection may develop in the wound after surgery. It may also occur … [Read more...] about Knee replacement infection: What you need to know